Quantitative 3D Geometry of the Aging Eyelids
Cristina A. Flores, BA1, Helena O. Taylor, MD, PhD1, Margaret E. Byrne, RN1, Jose A. Gonzalez, BS1, Joseph L. Mundy, PhD2.
1Division of Plastic Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Vision Systems Inc, Providence, RI, USA.
Purpose: While facial aging is a well known phenomenon, it has not been quantitatively characterized. Current methods for measuring and assessing eyelids, which rely almost exclusively on 2D imaging, are limited. This study introduces a novel technique for capturing periorbital structures using 3D imaging and point cloud data collection. Analyses are performed to assess changes in normal eyelids with age.
Methods: Under IRB approval 46 White females were included and divided into 3 age groups: 20-39 years (n=16), 40-59 years (n=15), and 60+ years (n=15). Patients were scanned with the Canfield® 3D photogrammetry system and data files were exported to the point cloud processing software CloudCompare®. Superior creases and the following features were defined: the medial canthus, lateral canthus, inferior margin midpoint, superior margin midpoint, and superior crease midpoint. The manually selected points provided the basis for characterizing age effects through a fitted model and principal component analysis (PCA).
Results: The visualized 3D models and PCA analysis performed across the age groups suggest the width and height of the palpebral fissure decreases, with the width decreasing more rapidly. The superior crease height diminishes with age, and the crease impinges on the superior margin. The depth of the lateral canthus relative to the medial canthus decreases with age.
Conclusions: This technique enables rigorous evaluation of the eyelid shape, and how it may change over time. This series suggests age-induced changes to eyelid margin, crease, and lateral canthus positions, which have been noted anecdotally, but poorly quantified until now.
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